## Stress Increase in Soils

We have looked at bearing capacity of the soil in the previous section but checking only that is not enough. We must also make sure that, even if the soil can bear the pressure, it will not settle too much.  Before calculating settlement amount in soil however, we must first know the stresses in soil. […]

## Angle of Internal Friction

Think of this post as a direct continuation of the previous two posts of this series, shear strength of soil and lateral earth pressure. Now let’s present another very important characteristic of soil, the angle of internal friction, which we briefly mentioned already before in those sections. Let’s consider a block resting on a surface, […]

## Example for Lateral Earth Pressure

Now let’s give a simple example to wrap things up. This example will use many things we have learned so far, not only in soil mechanics, but structural basics section too. We have a gravity retaining wall here, which is a type of retaining wall that resists overturning effect of retained soil by its weight. […]

## Total Stress, Effective Stress, Pore Water Pressure

Before we move on here with soils, let’s talk about fluid pressure first. The pressure of any fluid (liquid or gas), such as water, increases constantly with depth such as: Pressure = Unit Weight of the Material x Depth Written in correct terms: Pressure = γfluid x d, where, γ: the unit weight of the […]

## Stress vs Strain, Elasticity Modulus

After discussing stress and strength, the next important item to know is the relation of stress versus deformation. Imagine a material which is somehow perfectly rigid. In other words, it never deforms, no matter how large, even infinite, load you apply on it. In nature no such material exists. Every material, no matter how strong, […]

## Mohr’s Circle

In many cases, when performing structural or geotechnical calculations, it is important to know the possible effects of stresses that act on materials not from just one direction, as we saw above, but from multiple directions, which happens quite a lot. The effect of stresses acting from multiple directions will cause the materials to fail […]

## Axial Force, Shear Force, Bending Moment Diagrams

So far you have learned very important and fundamental concepts in statics. Now lets go one step further and introduce another fundamental subject. The force and moment diagrams. In the example in the previous post of this series, we had a beam, which was shown with its supports and an external force acting on it, […]

## Forces

Forces can be as: Compressive Tensile Shear All loads acting on structures are a combination of these forces. In addition, a force can also create a turning affect around a point, which can be of two types, as: Bending Moment (or simply “Moment” because it is very frequent) Torsional Moment (os simply “Torsion”, because it […]

## A note about sprawling growth of cities, & transportation by autonomous cars

Today in our civilization, very unfortunately, the trend of growth of our cities is of sprawling growth type. Allowing our cities to grow just by spreading outwards, is the worst thing we can do to our planet and to ourselves. Sprawling growth not only causes us to build more parking and roads, but also brings […]

## What does Geotechnical Engineering deal with?

In this post, I will try to broadly classify what topics fall under Geotechnical Engineering, one of the 5 main branches of Civil Engineering. We can first break Geotechnical Engineering into three main topics as: Soil Mechanics Foundation Engineering Retaining Walls, Stabilized Slopes, Deep Excavations Now, when I say break, it is only for grouping […]