Forces can be as: Compressive Tensile Shear All loads acting on structures are a combination of these forces. In addition, a force can also create a turning affect around a point, which can be of two types, as: Bending Moment (or simply “Moment” because it is very frequent) Torsional Moment (os simply “Torsion”, because it […]

Structural Basics: Forces and Stresses

Structural  Basics: Forces and Stresses

Introduction As we mentioned before, civil engineering is divided into five main branches. Now we will start to introduce the structural branch, and show the basics of probably the most two fundamental concepts in civil engineering, which are used in all branches of civil engineering as well, and not only structural.  These are forces and […]

Free Body Diagram:

Free Body Diagram:

Let’s introduce the first basic concept in statics, free body diagram. See figure below: as can be seen here, a glass rests on a table. For the purpose of statics, this can equally be represented as on right part of the figure. The weight of the glass exerts a force on the table, plus, there […]


One of the most fundamental concepts to understand in civil engineering is to understand the forces that act on objects. A force is a vector, which means, it has both magnitude and direction. Vectors are shown with arrows, pointing in their proper direction, and, the size of the arrow in proportion to its magnitude. Temperature […]



What is Surveying? Surveyors are the first people to visit a site, in order to locate the site and the project footprint and general features, to start the designs. After the designs are complete, before any construction activity starts in the field, surveyors also go there before any other trade, and layout and establish the […]

What is Construction?

Construction is building things in the real world, from designs that were made in engineers offices, in order to achieve the final project goals. Under project management, construction falls under the execution. Construction phase is led by a construction project manager, after all the designs and job planning on paper are “complete”. We put the […]

What is Civil Engineering?

Civil Engineering is the (oldest) engineering discipline which deals with designing and building all types of structures and related things, by applying principles of engineering knowledge backed up by research and knowledge based on science and mathematics. Civil engineers design and build all types of structures that make up our civilization, hence the word “civil”. […]

About Buildings

Of course when we talk about structures, the first thing that comes to our minds is the buildings, as we live in them, and we see all sorts of them around. By buildings we mean all kind of buildings that enclose an area from outside and separates it with the outside… such as residences, offices, […]

About Railroads

Railroads, in many instances can provide a more efficient way of transportation. For example, in developed countries like Europe or Japan, people can access to almost anywhere, including to or close to even small towns, with railroads and the big cities have extensive metro networks, which are also considered as railroads, from civil engineering point […]