Various Types of Retaining Walls

Sheet Pile Walls:

Sheet pile walls are made of panel pieces that can interlock together, which are driven in place from the top by pushing downwards. Many people know sheet pile walls only to be made of steel but precast concrete is also possible. Due to driving wall panels from the top downwards, they are not suitable where there are obstructions in the ground or hard soil conditions exist. These walls are also known as continuous walls.

Tangent (Secant) Piles:

These walls are made of piles poured right near each other, as tangent to each other, to work as a continuous wall, to retain earth. First the piles are driven, and then the excavation is made. These can also serve as a barrier to groundwater flow.

The top of piles are connected by a header beam, which is a reinforced concrete beam that joins the top sides of the piles, so that the whole assembly can act as one. If the height is above a certain limit, then one or more beams at intermediate heights can also be used additonally, to connect the piles to each other.

The piles can be constructed by jet grouting, augercast or deep soil mixing methods as well. They are poured not side by side, but skipping a pile at each installation. After the desired wall length is reached, then the skipped piles are installed. This is to ensure better alignment and connection of piles.

Soldier Piles & Lagging:

These walls are made by driving piles into the ground, and then filling the gap in between by putting beams on top of each other. The pile sections are usually H steel columns, and the beams are usually timber that are inserted between the piles. Concrete or steel beams are also used. The beams are called lagging. The piles can be driven by vibratory hammers or by first drilling holes and then inserting them. The piles are installed to the total depth of the future ecavation first. And then, as the excavation proceeds and gets deeper, the beams are inserted between the piles. In some cases Instead of steel piles, concrete columns can be made and they can be anchored to the retained earth too.

 retaining walls 6

Gabions:

These are large wire mesh boxes which are filled with rocks and stones. In addition to earth retainage, it is used to stabilize slopes and erosion control. To stabilize a slope, first some portion of the slope if excavated, and then the wire meshes are placed, and filled with stone and rocks, starting from the bottom, and going up. As height increases, the back side will need backfill which is done gradually.

buraya manavgatta cektigin fotoyu koy gabion wall ornegi diye

Crib Retaining Walls:

This is a type of gravity wall, made of interlocking pieces of precast concrete or timber blocks. The boxes are filled with coarse grained soils, in order to provide weight and drainage for water at the same time.

In the next post of this series, we will discuss “Stabilized Slopes”

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