Deep Foundations (Pile Foundations)

Deep foundations, also called as pile foundations, are used when there is not sufficiently strong soil at a reasonable depth, and using shallow foundations would cause failure or excessive settlement of the structure, even if that same soil can be a sufficiently strong foundation material for a lighter project. For example, for a bridge, where […]

Shallow foundations

Design: Shallow foundations are used where the soil has enough bearing capacity and shear strength (in other words strong enough) at a reasonably close depth. The Federal Highway Administration defines shallow foundations as, “a foundation that bears at a depth less than about two times the foundation width”. Under soil mechanics, we have said that […]


In the previous posts we introduced earth materials from a civil engineering point of view and gave an overview of soil mechanics. The entire soil mechanics concepts are studied not for the sake of understanding soils only, but to use them in designing better foundations, slopes and retaining structures. That is when we put the […]

Earthwork Equipment

Earth moving equipment names can easily be confused with each other, so let’s briefly list and describe them here: Dozers: Dozers are general use, probably the most basic type of equipment in construction. They can be used in land clearing, dozing, scraper loading assistance for earthwork and also for general use for purposes other than […]

Earthwork Quantity Calculations

Earth is almost never at the desired elevation at the intended location of a structure, and even if it was the case, almost always modifications must be done, to serve as a foundation base material that is capable of supporting the loads and at the same time settling only within tolerable limits. Therefore, earthwork operations […]